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Current definition and explanatory notes
Nocturnal Enuresis is a lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) and is defined as a compliant of loss of urine occurring during sleep (NEW). Any involuntary loss of urine is enuresis (ORIGINAL); if it is used to denote continence during sleep, it should always be qualified with the adjective “nocturnal”(1). It can be considered as primary and secondary.


Therapies (especially guidelines)

Perspectives and controversies

The Macdonald Triad: Bedwetting past five years of age, animal cruelty and fire-setting are considered as three common behaviours (triad) observed in children prone to anti-social behaviour (2).


For clinicians:
1. Nocturnal enuresis – the management of bedwetting in children and young people (Clinical guideline 111).
Published by the National Institute of Health and Care excellence (NICE).
October 2010.
This clinical guideline offers evidence-based advice on the assessment, care and treatment of children and young people up to the age of 19 with bedwetting.

For Patients:
Bladder and Bowel Foundation

  1. 1. Abrams, P., Cardozo, L., Fall, M., Griffiths, D., Rosier, P., Ulmsten, U., ... & Wein, A. (2002). The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub‐committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourology and urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.
  2. 2. Macdonald JM (1963). The threat to kill. Am J Psychiatry 120:125-130